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Air Max heavy as uranium while increasing the
The positive ion injector project will replace a High Voltage Engineering Corp. model FN 9 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator Air Max 97 Hyperfuse as the injector into the ATLAS superconducting heavy ion linear accelerator. It consists of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source on a 350-kV platform injecting into a linac of individually phased superconducting resonators which have been optimized for ions with velocities as low as β = 0.009. The resulting combination will extend Air Max the useful mass range of ATLAS to projectiles as heavy as uranium, while increasing the beam currents available by a factor of 100. The die swell problem occurs when a fluid flows down a capillary and is emitted into a gas which exerts negligible shear and normal forces on the jet. The die swell problem is solved for Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids. The viscoelastic fluids use a nonlinear Maxwell model but we report calculations for only a small elastic component. Both Galerkin and collocation Finite Element Methods are used and compared. The role of natural boundary conditions in the Galerkin method is compared to the pointwise satisfaction of boundary conditions in the collocation method.